AES 256 algorithm towards Data Security in Edge Computing Environment – Design and Reuse

By Jaswant singh, Logic Fruit Technologies

Context

Edge Intelligence, also known as Edge AI, is a hybrid of artificial intelligence and edge computing that allows machine learning algorithms to be deployed at the data generation edge.

Today, enormous volumes of data are generated by a growing number of sensors and smart IoT devices, and ever-increasing processing power is moving the core of calculations and services from the cloud to the network’s edge. Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have opened up a plethora of new options for resolving security problems in the context of Edge Computing, where security and privacy have become key considerations.

Consider a scenario, you’re storing or transmitting top-secret or classified information and are assigned the task of keeping sensitive national security information concealed from nation-states attempting to steal it. You have to keep the data safe and secure. Here, encryption comes into the picture.

You can find AES-256 Encryption App on Xilinx App Store by Logic Fruit Technologies.

An encryption system scrambles sensitive data by converting it to code using mathematical computations. Only the proper key may disclose the original data, ensuring that it remains safe from all except authorized parties.

Global Overview

  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption technique disguises electronic information using an authorized (FIPS PUB 197) 128-bit, 192-bit, or 256-bit symmetric encryption algorithm.
  • Hackers and third parties attempting to get unauthorized access to users’ information will be unable to decipher data encrypted using the AES algorithm.
  • AES is based on the substitution–permutation network design idea and is efficient in both software and hardware implementations. It consists of a sequence of connected processes, some of which require substituting particular outputs for inputs (substitutions) and others involving shuffling bits about (permutations).

Standards and recommendations

  • AES was developed after the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recognized the need for a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES), which was becoming vulnerable to brute-force attacks.
  • NIST chose five algorithms for further investigation in August 1999:
    • MARS, which was submitted by a big IBM Research team.
    • RC6, submitted by RSA Security.
    • Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen, both of Belgium, submitted Rijndael.
    • Ross Anderson, Eli Biham, and Lars Knudsen contributed Serpent.
    • Twofish was provided by a wide group of Counterpane Internet Security experts, including cryptographer Bruce Schneier.
  • The Rijndael encryption was chosen as the proposed algorithm for AES in October 2000, following much input, debate, and study. It was published by NIST as U.S. Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) PUB 197, and the secretary of commerce adopted it in December 2001.
  • Another standard is also defined in the ISO/IEC 18033-3: Block ciphers (128-bits): A block cipher is a symmetric encoding method in which the encryption algorithm transforms a block of plaintext into a block of ciphertext.

Key aspect: Security

  • The key length of 256 bits, supports the highest bit size and is almost impenetrable by brute force with today’s computer power, making it the strongest and most secure encryption standard.
  • Symmetric encryption, particularly AES 256, is considered to be quantum-resistant. Quantum computers are unlikely to be able to shorten the attack time sufficiently to be effective if the key sizes are large enough.
  • Because the AES encryption is so crack secure, side-channel assaults are a major threat. These don’t go for a brute-force attack, instead of attempting to gather information through the system’s leaks.
  • To figure out how security algorithms operate, hackers can listen in on noises, electromagnetic signals, time information, or power usage.
  • By eliminating information leaks or disguising the leaked data, side-channel attacks can be avoided. The app utilizes RTL-based kernels and the design is based purely on the hardware inside the FPGA. Any sensitive data leak is considerably far from reality.

Key Size

Possible Combinations

Rounds

Time to Crack (years)

128

3.4 x 10^38

10

1.02 x 10^18

192

6.2 x 10^57

12

1.872 x 10^37

256

1.1 x 10^77

14

3.31 x 10^56

Use-cases

  • AES is utilized by 7-Zip, WinZip, and RAR, as well as disk encryption systems like BitLocker and FileVault and file systems like NTFS.
  • It’s a crucial component of database encryption and VPN systems like IPsec and SSL/TLS. AES is used by password managers including LastPass, KeePass, and 1Password, as well as messaging apps such as WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger.
  • All Intel and AMD CPUs provide the AES instruction set. AES is used in video games such as Grand Theft Auto IV to protect against hackers.
  • According to the many worldwide research and analysis that were done in this field, some of the AES algorithms that underperformed in software versions fared amazingly well in the FPGA implementations.

Configuration and Performance

  • The AES 256 app is an accelerated application (delivered as a Docker container) whose purpose is to encrypt/decrypt any data/file type provided by the user. The application is designed and developed on the Xilinx® Vitis unified software platform and is focused on the Xilinx® Alveo™ U200 Data Center accelerator card.
  • In recent research, it is a proven fact that CTR mode speeds up the process of encryption with 128-bit key over 10.15%, 192-bit key over 10.09%, and 256-bit key over 10.05%. The decryption process shows 128-bit key acceleration over 10.11%, 192-bit key over 10.05%, and 256-bit key over 10.02%.
  • The use of RTL kernels and the OpenCL programming language to perform the AES algorithm in parallel (CTR) mode makes the design more hardware-centric and delivers quicker computation results.
  • When AES is implemented in an instruction set rather than only software, the side-channel attack surface and latency decreases, and throughput increases.

Conclusion

  • AES delivers the four most fundamental information security services: Confidentiality, Authentication, Data Integrity, and Non-repudiation. Symmetric encryption is commonly used for mass data transfer since it is a faster method. Asymmetric encryption, on the other hand, is a sophisticated and slower encryption approach that is useful for transferring keys.
  • With so many scenarios of communication networks, PC systems, cloud servers, and personal devices being hacked, the developers and the encryption specialists must always be one step ahead of the hackers and keep their data encrypted and safe.
  • However, even the most secure cryptographic systems may be compromised if a hacker has access to the key. Strong passwords, multi-factor authentication, firewalls, and antivirus software are all important components of a broader security strategy.
  • AES 256 is one of the safest encryption algorithms due to its superior technology. It is continually being researched by researchers in order to find any potential flaws. Users can take action to solve the problem whenever one is found.

For more details about AES 256 IP or any information about Logic Fruit Technologies you can reach here : jaswant.singh@logic-fruit.com.

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